National ART & Surrogacy Portal
Department of Health Research
Ministry of Health & Family Welfare
Government of India


Frequently Asked Questions

Infertility" means the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected coitus or other proven medical condition preventing a couple from conception.

Infertility may be caused by a number of different factors, in either the male or female reproductive systems. Infertility can also be due to unexplained causes

  • untreated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or complications of unsafe abortion, postpartum sepsis or abdominal/pelvic surgery.
  • hormonal imbalances
  • anovulation (not releasing eggs from your ovaries)
  • tubal disorders such as blocked fallopian tubes
  • poor egg quality
  • uterine disorders which could be inflammatory in nature (such as such endometriosis), congenital in nature (such as septate uterus), or benign in nature (such as fibroids);
  • disorders of the ovaries
  • The most common causes for infertility in males are;
  • varicocele
  • infection
  • ejaculation issues
  • abnormal sperm function and quality
  • tumors
  • undescended testicles
  • hormone imbalances
  • abnormal shape (morphology) and movement (motility) of the sperm negatively affect fertility
  • Most infertility cases are treated with conventional therapies, such as medications, surgeries, IUI or IVF. Doctors recommend specific infertility treatment on the basis of the requirement of the patien

    No infertility is not a genetic disorder. But some of the conditions like PCOS, premature ovarian failure, Endometriosis, etc. have been associated with a genetic linkage. In cases of males, genetic con

    Both male and female factors can contribute to infertility. It is essential for both the partners to be evaluated during an infertility work up.

    Assisted reproductive technology" means all techniques that attempt to obtain a pregnancy by handling the sperm or the oocyte outside the human body and transferring the gamete or the embryo into the reproductive system of a woman.

    The different ART procedures that are available today are:
  • Invitro Fertilisation (IVF) - This is the most effective method of ART and is the most common.
  • Intauterine Insemination (IUI) - Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is an office procedure in which prepared sperm cells are placed directly into a woman’s cervix or uterus to produce pregnancy, with or without ovarian stimulation.
  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) - In this procedure a single sperm is injected into a mature egg .
  • Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT) - In this method the egg is fertilised in a laboratory and the embryo is transferred into the fallopian tube in its very early stage of development.
  • Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT) - The eggs and sperm are transferred into the woman’s fallopian tube.
  • Surrogacy means a practice whereby one woman bears and gives birth to a child for an intending couple with the intention of handing over such child to the intending couple after the birth.

    Altruistic surrogacy” means the surrogacy in which no charges, expenses, fees, remuneration or monetary incentive of whatever nature, except the medical expenses and such other prescribed expenses incurred on surrogate mother and the insurance coverage for the surrogate mother, are given to the surrogate mother or her dependents or her representative.

    It is an Act for the regulation and supervision of the assisted reproductive technology clinics and the assisted reproductive technology banks, prevention of misuse, safe and ethical practice of assisted reproductive technology services for addressing the issues of reproductive health where assisted reproductive technology is required for becoming a parent or for freezing gametes, embryos, embryonic tissues for further use due to infertility, disease or social or medical concerns and for regulation and supervision of research and development and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

    It is an Act to constitute National Assisted Reproductive Technology and Surrogacy Board, State Assisted Reproductive Technology and Surrogacy Boards and appointment of appropriate authorities for regulation of the practice and process of surrogacy and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.